The Accountability Review Council (ARC) of the School District of Philadelphia commissioned Research for Action to conduct a qualitative study designed to shed light on the practices of relatively successful Philadelphia schools serving middle and high school students. ARC is an independent assessment and reporting center created as part of 2001 state legislation. The study examined the organizational practices of 17 higher performing schools that served substantial numbers of low income students. The sample of schools included schools that were managed by educational management organizations (EMOs), district-managed schools, and charter schools.
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