The Potential Effects of Opting Out of State Tests in Pennsylvania

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Publication Date
September 2014


Parents across the country have expressed frustration with standardized tests. This policy brief examines the degree to which student opt-outs might influence Pennsylvania’s new school rating system, the School Performance Profile (SPP), which relies heavily on standardized test scores.


  • Jessica K. Beaver
  • Lucas Westmaas
  • John Sludden